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Reference ID Created Released Classification Origin
08ASTANA2380 2008-12-02 01:58 2011-08-30 01:44 UNCLASSIFIED Embassy Astana

DE RUEHTA #2380/01 3370158
P 020158Z DEC 08

E.O. 12958: N/A 
REF: STATE 100992 
1.  (U) Sensitive but unclassified.  Not for public Internet. 
2.  (SBU) SUMMARY:  In response to reftel, please find below Part 1 
of the 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) 
for Kazakhstan.  Kazakhstan is still affected by the expansion of 
international drug trafficking and continues to fight drug 
trafficking, focusing on improvements to legislation, prevention, 
and supply reduction.  Law-enforcement agencies in Kazakhstan have 
focused their efforts on disruption of the trafficking route from 
Afghanistan, which is the main source of narcotics into and 
throughout the country.  Afghan heroin transported along the 
northern route supplies Kazakhstan's domestic market and transits 
Kazakhstan to Russia and onward to Europe.  Kazakhstan continues 
implementation of two, large-scale programs to combat corruption and 
drug trafficking mandated by President Nazarbayev.  Strengthening 
the borders, especially in the south, is a priority for the 
government.  Kazakhstan acceded to the 1988 UN Convention against 
Illicit Trafficking of Narcotics and Psychotropic substances 
(Narcotics Convention) in April 1997 and is also party to the United 
Nations Convention against Corruption.  END SUMMARY. 
3.  (SBU) Its geographic location, relatively developed 
transportation infrastructure, the openness of its borders with 
neighboring countries, and its social and economic stability have 
made Kazakhstan a major transit zone for narcotics and psychotropic 
substances.  This year, the drug situation in Kazakhstan has been 
characterized by a decrease in the total number of registered 
drug-related crimes and a significant increase in the volume of 
seized drugs, including heroin. 
4.  (SBU) The main factors influencing illegal drug use and sales in 
Kazakhstan are the expansion of Afghan production, the importation 
of synthetic drugs from Russia and Europe, and the presence of 
naturally-growing marijuana in Southern Kazakhstan.  The main types 
of drugs illegally crossing into and through the country are Afghan 
opiates, synthetic drugs, and cannabis.  During the first nine 
months of 2008, there was a significant increase in the volume of 
seized heroin (from 379 kilos to 1.5 metric tons, a 300% increase 
compared to the same period last year). 
5.  (SBU) A law signed on June 26 by President Nazarbayev that 
amends the Criminal, Criminal Procedural, and Administrative Codes 
introduced tougher punishments for drug-related crimes, which is 
consistent with article 24 of the Narcotics Convention stipulating 
application of stricter measures than those required by the 
Convention.  The new law increases the most serious penalty for 
drug-related crimes to life imprisonment.  Because of the threat to 
Kazakhstani national security posed by narco-trafficking, the new 
law defines certain drug-related crimes as "especially grave" and, 
thus, life imprisonment is now available in cases of trafficking in 
large quantities; participation in drug-related crimes as part of a 
criminal organization; drug sales in an educational institution 
and/or to minors; and sale or distribution of drugs resulting in 
6.  (SBU) Article 319-1 of the Administrative Code penalizes 
entrepreneurs of entertainment facilities who do not take measures 
to stop the sale and/or consumption of drugs, psychotropic 
substances, and precursors.  Fines are determined by the status of 
the owner and are based on the Monthly Calculated Index (MCI), which 
is determined annually and is the basis of all fines and taxes for 
both individuals and businesses.  Additionally, MCI is also the 
basis for pension calculations and benefits.  MCI is currently 1,168 
KZT (approximately $9). 
7.  (SBU) The amended counter-narcotics legislation is believed to 
have been a factor in the recent increase in narcotics use, 
including among heroin and opium users.  The average price of heroin 
nearly doubled in the northern regions of the country and increased 
an average of 130% in the southern regions. 
8.  (SBU) The serious problem of seized drugs being resold by 
corrupt police was dealt with by introducing amendments to the 
Criminal Procedure Code allowing for the destruction of more than 
the minimum amount necessary for evidence as soon as forensic 
testing is completed.  The minimum amount would be retained and 
entered into evidence, along with the forensic report, during 
9.  (SBU) In November 2005, President Nazarbayev signed a decree 
approving a strategy to combat drug addiction and trafficking for 
2006-2014.  The purpose of the strategy was to create a full-scale 
ASTANA 00002380  002 OF 006 
system in which both the government and civil society together 
counteract the problems of drug addiction and narco-business. 
;10.  (SBU) The 2006-2008 Astana-Drug Free City program, announced by 
President Nazarbayev in September 2006, focuses on demand reduction, 
treatment of drug addiction, and combating drug trafficking. 
The Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), jointly with other law 
enforcement agencies, is charged with implementing this program, in 
which law-enforcement agencies target night clubs and other areas 
where drugs are sold.  As a result of the program, law enforcement 
agencies in Astana reported 198 drug-related crimes during the first 
nine months of 2008.  One hundred thirty-six of these crimes 
involved sales.  The volume of seizures in Astana increased by 62.7% 
and the total amount of heroin seized in Astana has increased by 
more than 600%. 
11.  (SBU) In accordance with Article 11 of the Narcotics 
Convention, Kazakhstan participates in controlled deliveries. 
During the first nine months of 2008, 27 controlled deliveries, 
including 12 cross-border operations, were conducted by Kazakhstani 
law-enforcement bodies.  Kazakhstan conducted five controlled 
deliveries jointly with colleagues from the Kyrgyz Republic and the 
Russian Federation and two operations with Tajikistan.  These 
operations resulted in the seizures of 600 kilos, including over 88 
kilos of heroin. 
12.  (SBU) Kazakhstan actively fights narco-trafficking to and 
throughout the country.  For example, special services share 
information with their colleagues from neighboring countries.  The 
Border Guard Service has jurisdiction over trafficking across the 
border, while counter-narcotics operations in country are conducted 
by Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) units and the Committee for 
National Security (KNB), with the goal of ultimately arresting the 
leaders of trafficking rings. 
13.  (SBU) All law-enforcement agencies combined reported 7,883 
drug-related crimes, including 295 cases of trafficking during the 
first nine months of the year.  A total of 23 tons, including 200 
kilos of drugs and psychotropic substances, were seized during that 
period, which is a 6.5% increase over the same period last year (21 
tons, 787 kilos were seized during the same period in 2007).  The 
total includes 1,514 kilos of heroin (nearly a 300% increase over 
last year's seizures of 378 kilos), 14 kilos of opium (a decrease of 
92.9% from last year's 197 kilos), 327 kilos of hashish (a 74.7% 
increase), and 21,196 kilos of marijuana (a 3.6% increase over last 
year's 20,467 kilos). 
14.  (SBU) Kazakhstani law-enforcement agencies have focused on 
conducting quality operations against entire cartels and not just 
the arrest of small couriers to increase seizure statistics.  Over 
nine months, the MVD crushed eight organized criminal groups, whose 
members committed 51 drug-related crimes.  As a result of these 
operations, the police seized 48.763 kilos of drugs, including 37 
kilos of marijuana, over 10 kilos of heroin, and one kilo of 
cannabis resin. 
15.  (SBU) Two record seizures marked 2008.  In March, the Customs 
Service seized 537 kilos of heroin at the Kairak border checkpoint 
on the Kazakhstani-Russian border utilizing a stationary X-ray 
machine.  Two Russian citizens were sentenced to 13 years in prison 
as a result.  The cargo was en route from Uzbekistan to Saint 
Petersburg.  The drug couriers reportedly were paid $8,000 to 
transport the heroin to Russia.  The year's second large seizure was 
of 120 kilos of heroin by the MVD's Committee on Combating Drugs, in 
cooperation with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and 
Turkish law enforcement. 
16.  (SBU) The law enforcement agencies of Kazakhstan, Russia, 
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, with the assistance of Afghanistan, broke 
up one of the largest Central Asian trafficking organizations, which 
transported heroin and opium through Central Asia to Russia.  As a 
result of the multi-stage, three-year Operation "Typhoon," 
law-enforcement agencies opened 24 criminal cases and arrested 42 
members of an international drug ring, including 14 citizens of 
Kazakhstan.  A total of 800 kilos of heroin and 100 kilos of opium 
were seized in four countries during the operation.  As a result of 
the operation, all branches were disrupted in participating 
countries.  Traffickers working for the cartel transported drugs via 
two routes: from Shymkent (on the Kazakhstani-Uzbek border) through 
Taraz, Karaganda, Astana, and Petropavlovsk and from Shymkent 
through Taraz, Almaty, Taldy Korgan, and Ust-Kamenogorsk. 
17.  (SBU) As a result of the successful operations and the latest 
amendments to legislation, drug prices have increased throughout the 
country.  In Astana, prices have doubled to $600 for a kilo of 
marijuana, $5,000 for hashish, and $10,000 for heroin.  In Almaty, a 
kilo of marijuana is up to $400 from last year's $250.  In Pavlodar, 
ASTANA 00002380  003 OF 006 
a kilo of heroin ranges from $10,000 to $15,000, an increase over 
last year's $8,000. 
18.  (SBU) During the reporting period, 5,756 people were detained 
for drug-related crimes (A decrease of 6.6% from last year).  The 
number of women, minors, and repeat offenders committing 
drug-related crimes has decreased by 4.2% for women (from 684 to 
655), 36.5% for minors (from 52 to 33), and 4.9% for repeat 
offenders (from 288 to 274).  Convictions for drug-related crimes 
have also decreased from 5,850 to 5,326.  Of those convicted, 575 
were women and 31 were minors. 
19.  (SBU) The Kanal-2008 (Channel) interstate operation was 
conducted within the framework of the Collective Security Treaty 
Organization (CSTO) on September 15-23.  The purpose of the 
operation was the detection and disruption of trafficking from 
Central Asia and Afghanistan and the dismantling of transnational 
organized criminal groups involved in trafficking.  In Kazakhstan, 
the operation resulted in the discovery of 274 drug-related crimes, 
including 97 cases of sales and nine cases of trafficking, with the 
seizure of 1.4 metric tons of drugs, including 133 kilos of heroin. 
20.  (SBU) As a matter of government policy, Kazakhstan does not 
encourage or facilitate illicit production or distribution of 
narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or 
the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug trafficking.  There 
were no cases of senior government officials engaged in the illicit 
production or distribution of drugs.  However, there were several 
reported cases of corrupt police officers. 
21.  (SBU) Two officers of the Criminal Police Unit and two officers 
of the Counter-Narcotics Unit in Southern Kazakhstan were sentenced 
to 10 to 12 years after having been convicted of the storage and 
sale of drugs and the abuse of their official position.  As a result 
f an undercover KNB operation in January, the four officers were 
arrested for attempting to force a recently-released convict to sell 
drugs that had been previously seized. 
22.  (SBU) The 1998 Law on Combating Corruption and Presidential 
Decrees on Measures for Strengthening the Fight Against Corruption 
(2005) and On the State Program on Combating Corruption for 
2006-2010 were passed or issued to deal with the issues of 
government corruption.  The 2003 UN Convention on Corruption was 
ratified in May 2008. 
23.  (SBU) In November, President Nazerbayev announced the need for 
further law-enforcement reforms.  The system he proposed would be 
effective, transparent, and would serve the interests of the people. 
 Nazarbayev also proposed that fight against government corruption 
should be concentrated in one body.  Currently, all state agencies 
are mandated to take measures to combat corruption internally.  To 
prevent corruption in the MVD, it conducts internal seminars about 
anti-corruption legislation. 
24.  (SBU) The United States and Kazakhstan signed the seventh 
Supplementary Protocol to the Memorandum of Understanding on 
Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement on August 29 to support demand 
reduction programs and the sixth Supplementary Protocol on September 
29 to support border security, counter-narcotics and 
anti-trafficking in persons programs. 
25.  (SBU) The law-enforcement bodies of Kazakhstan closely 
cooperate with the Agency of the Kyrgyz Republic on Drug Control, 
the Agency on Drug Control of the Republic of Tajikistan, the 
Federal Service of the Russian Federation on Drug Control, and the 
National Center on Drug Control of the Cabinet of Ministers of the 
Republic of Uzbekistan.  The intergovernmental interagency 
agreements on cooperation in the area of combating drugs are the 
legal basis for this cooperation.  These countries conduct joint 
operations and investigations, demand reduction events, special 
operations, exchange of operative information and methodological 
literature, working meetings, and other activities. 
26.  (SBU) The pilot phase of the Central Asian Regional Information 
Coordination Center (CARICC) was launched on November 1, 2007, in 
Almaty.  UNODC recruited the core staff for the pilot phase.  CARICC 
has already participated in controlled delivery operations. 
Kazakhstan believes that CARICC will become an effective 
organization which will collect operational information and analyze 
it.  Kazakhstan ratified the CARICC agreement on November 6 and, 
with the ratification of Tajikistan six days later, CARICC has the 
required ratifications for the agreement to enter into force. 
Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan had previously ratified the agreement. 
According to the terms of the CARICC agreement, signed by all of the 
countries of Central Asia, Russia, and Azerbaijan, the agreement 
officially enters into force 30 days after Kazakhstan receives the 
ASTANA 00002380  004 OF 006 
fourth ratification instrument. 
27.  (SBU) CARICC has established professional relationships with 
Europol, Interpol, the World Customs Organization, and other 
professional agencies.  DEA is opening an office in Almaty to allow 
for closer contact with both Kazakhstan and CARICC. 
28.  (SBU) A favorable climate in Kazakhstan contributes to the 
growth of wild marijuana, equisetum ephedra, and opium poppies. 
Such plants grow on over 1.2 million hectares in Almaty, Zhambyl, 
South Kazakhstan, Kyzylorda, and East Kazakhstan regions.  The 
largest source of marijuana in Kazakhstan is the Chu Valley in the 
Zhambyl region.  Marijuana with a high THC content grows naturally 
on an estimated 138,000 hectares in the Chu Valley.  The approximate 
annual harvest is estimated to be as high as 145 thousand tons of 
marijuana or 6,000 tons of hashish. 
29.  (SBU) The government has considered various proposals to fight 
marijuana cultivation in the Chu Valley, including introduction of a 
quarantine zone in the region or establishing industrial processing 
of wild marijuana. 
30.  (SBU) By order of the Minister of Interior, the Committee on 
Combating Drugs established two new units in May 2007 which are 
believed to have resulted in a 17% increase in the prices for all 
cannabis-related drugs.  The "Ontustik" (South) unit combats 
organized crime in South Kazakhstan and the "Delta-Dolina" unit 
focuses on criminal groups and suppliers in the Chu Valley. 
31.  (SBU) Operation "Mak" (Poppy) is an annual operation conducted 
from May 25 to October 25 to combat the harvesting of illicit crops 
and disrupt drug cartels in the Chu Valley.  During the operation, 
the Committee on Combating Drugs closely cooperates with the Border 
Guard Service of the Committee for National Security (BGS) and 
creates a security zone around the valley to prevent the movement of 
the crop out of the valley.  Inter-agency mobile units also conduct 
patrols throughout the valley.  As a result of the operation, 
law-enforcement agencies found 230 separate illicit crop 
cultivations, including 24 areas growing poppies and 206 areas 
growing marijuana over a total area of 11,079 square meters.  Over 
20 tons of drugs, including those being trafficked through the area, 
were seized during this year's operation, including 50 kilos of 
heroin, 20 tons of marijuana, over two kilos of opium, and 74 kilos 
of hashish.  The MVD registered 3,754 drug-related crimes, including 
1,476 cases of sales and 107 cases of trafficking.  The operation 
also resulted in the detention of 3,170 offenders.  Despite the 
discovery of poppy cultivation, law-enforcement agencies have not 
yet discovered a heroin lab in Kazakhstan.  It is believed that the 
majority of the raw opium from the Kazakhstani poppies is smoked, 
chewed, or eaten.  (NOTE:  An average user chews or eats 5-10 grams 
of raw opium.  END NOTE). 
32.  (SBU) On July 28, police closed a lab producing pervitin 
(methamphetamine hydrochloride) in Pavlodar (Northern Kazakhstan). 
Methamphetamine is included in the list of drugs, psychotropic 
substances, and precursors that are subject to control under 
Kazakhstani legislation.  The lab was operated by a Russian citizen 
who learned to build and operate a lab from a fellow prisoner in 
Tolyatti, Russia while serving a two-year term for a drug-related 
33.  (SBU) Despite the large amount of domestic production, 
Kazakhstan faces a much more serious threat from the transit of 
narcotics.  As a result of the transit, the country faces an 
increasing problem with addiction.  International experts estimate 
that 10%-15% of drugs trafficked through Kazakhstan remain in the 
domestic market. 
34.  (SBU) The main types of drugs trafficked through Kazakhstan are 
Afghan opiates (heroin and opium), synthetic drugs (LSD and 
ecstasy), marijuana, and hashish.  Police discovered no labs 
producing heroin, LSD, or ecstasy during 2008. 
35.  (SBU) The delivery and sale of synthetic drugs was disrupted by 
the KNB in the North Kazakhstan region, where 500 doses of ecstasy 
from the Netherlands were seized.  The price of one pill was 
estimated at approximately 15 Euro.  In the Jamaika night club in 
Astana, the MVD detained a distributor of 50 ecstasy pills, who was 
later convicted and sentenced to ten years in prison.  Though the 
majority of ecstasy seized in Kazakhstan has previously been from 
Europe, this year the MVD seized some ecstasy that had been imported 
from Istanbul. 
36.  (SBU) According to officers working at internal narcotics 
checkpoints, trucks traveling under the UN International Road 
Transport Convention (TIR) are being used to traffic narcotics 
ASTANA 00002380  005 OF 006 
through the country.  Recent seizures in TIR vehicles have confirmed 
these suspicions.  The TIR Convention was drafted to facilitate the 
international shipment of goods and was meant to simplify and 
harmonize administrative formalities.  Article 5 of the TIR 
Convention stipulates that goods carried in sealed vehicles or 
containers shall not be subjected to examination by customs 
officials en route.  However, to prevent abuses, customs authorities 
may, in exceptional cases and particularly when irregularity is 
suspected, examine the goods. 
37.  (SBU) Though there are definite advantages for countries in the 
Convention, such as avoiding long delays at the borders and physical 
inspection of goods in transit, it is clear that traffickers are 
exploiting the TIR Convention.  Law-enforcement agencies on the 
border and inside the country have said that more truck scanners are 
needed to detect contraband in sealed trucks.  However they are also 
clamoring for reconsideration of the rules of the TIR Convention, to 
allow for inspection of vehicles. 
38.  (SBU) In order to address the serious issue of drug addiction 
in Kazakhstan, the MVD is working closely with the Ministry of 
Culture and Information, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of 
Education and Science to conduct demand reduction and prevention 
campaigns.  The Ministries implemented a pilot project in September 
to detect drug consumption among university students.  Law 
enforcement and medical personnel are conducting drug tests at a 
university in Astana and will forward the results to parents and 
conduct statistical analysis on the results. 
The aim of the project is to raise awareness among the public, 
parents, teachers, and members of Parliament about the necessity for 
obligatory drug tests in educational institutions, including 
universities and secondary schools. 
39.  (SBU) In the demand reduction area, interested agencies 
conducted over 4,500 events, including large-scale demonstrations, 
seminars, round tables, conferences, lectures, and sport 
competitions.  A total of 270,000 people participated in these 
events.  With the help of state agencies and the local 
administration, 2,600 clubs were established to encourage youth to 
lead a healthy life-style.  An estimated 688,000 people have visited 
these clubs.  Approximately 6,400 anti-narcotics materials were 
issued since the beginning of the year, including TV and radio 
programs and printed materials. 
40.  (SBU) Secondary schools in Kazakshtan include discussions of 
the dangers of drug use with students in their curricula, encourage 
students to seek help from social and psychological services, and 
work directly with parents when necessary.  The Ministry of 
Education and Science also introduced special demand-reduction 
courses in the academic curricula at schools.  As part of this 
program, experts in drugs, psychologists, and police deliver 
lectures to students. 
41.  (SBU) Kazakhstan also conducts harm-reduction programs through 
educational campaigns and needle exchanges.  In accordance with the 
2006-2010 program, those with AIDS from vulnerable populations 
receive contraceptives, educational materials, needle exchanges, and 
treatment of infections on a free confidential basis.  Friendly 
clinics and government and NGO hotlines deliver these services. 
42.  (SBU) The International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Section 
(INL) of the U.S. Embassy works with the United Nations Office on 
Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to strength the Rubezh-Narkotiki (internal 
narcotics) checkpoints.  UNODC provides communications equipment to 
six posts throughout the country. Based on the results of an 
assessment of the Rubezh checkpoints, INL arranged a series of 
training events for personnel working at the checkpoints.  To 
support the future sustainability of counter-narcotics training 
capacity, INL equipped a computer lab and provided conference and 
interpretation equipment to the Interagency Scientific and 
Analytical Counter-Narcotics Training Center in Almaty. 
43.  (SBU) The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is the 
implementing partner in the project to strengthen the Kazakhstani 
side of the Kazakhstani-Russian border.  IOM recently established a 
second Border Guard Training Center in Uralsk, Western Kazakhstan. 
44.  (SBU) One of the major programs initiated in 2008 was a canine 
program with all law-enforcement agencies.  INL funded the purchase 
of three dogs and sponsored the attendance of three Kazakhstani 
officers at a two-month course at the Canine Center in Bad Kreuzen, 
Austria.  The training of the first three dogs was meant to acquaint 
Kazakhstanis with the Austrian method of training dogs for the 
search of drugs and allow Kazakhstani and Austrian officials to 
exchange experience in this area.  The Austrian method uses training 
approaches that minimize stress and conflict and maximize 
ASTANA 00002380  006 OF 006 
psychological work with the dogs.  The training of instructors was 
followed by a series of interagency training programs in Kazakhstan. 
 Through its grant to IOM, INL is renovating sections of the canine 
facility at the Military Institute of the Committee for National 
45.  (SBU) To increase border security capacity, INL continues its 
close cooperation with the Border Guard Service and the Military 
Institute of the Committee for National Security.  Post provided 
drug detection equipment and training in its use to border posts. 
Two instructors of the Military Institute attended basic training at 
the U.S. Border Patrol Academy in Artesia, New Mexico. 
46.  (SBU) Th
e United States will continue its cooperation with the 
Government of Kazakhstan to increase counter-narcotics capacity. 
INL will continue providing training in drug courier profiling, the 
use of newly provided equipment, and new operations techniques. 
Next year, the focus will be on information exchange in the area of 
intelligence gathering. 
47.  (SBU) The United States will continue its cooperation with the 
Border Guard Service and provide technical assistance to checkpoints 
on the Kazakhstani-Russian border and will open an additional 
training center on the northern part of the Kazakhstani-Russian 
48.  (SBU) In cooperation with the Military Institute, INL plans to 
send one instructor from the Institute to the U.S. Customs and 
Border Protection Academy and one canine instructor to a canine 
academy in the United States.  Post will work with the Military 
Institute to strengthen its canine capacity by providing equipment 
and technical assistance.  INL plans to continue to support the 
relationship between the Austrian Ministry of Interior's Canine 
Center and Kazakhstani canine centers. 
49.  (SBU) Currently, law enforcement officers lack requisite 
English-language skills and are unable to communicate directly with 
specialized units in other countries.  To solve this problem, INL 
will provide English-language training to cadets of the Military 
Institute and staff of specialized counter-narcotics units. 
50.  (SBU) Article 12 of the Narcotics Convention requires parties 
to control substances frequently used in the illicit manufacture of 
narcotics drugs or psychotropic substances.  In response, the MVD's 
Committee on Combating Drugs established a special section on 
licensing the legal trade of precursor chemicals, psychotropic 
substances, and drugs.  The section created a single, unified 
register of legal entities whose activity is related to trade with 
precursors.  The register currently has more than 1,500 entries. 
51.  (SBU) One of the forms of state control over the trade in 
precursors is Operation Doping.  In this operation, subdivisions of 
the Committee on Combating Drugs inspect legal entities for 
compliance with rules on the storage, use, and destruction of drugs, 
psychotropic substances, and precursors on an annual basis.  These 
preventive measures allow for effective controls over precursors and 
prevent their outflow to illegal businesses. 
52.  (SBU) As a result of Operation Doping, the MVD found 332 
violations in the legal drug trade, seized 919.4 metric tons of 
precursors (hydrochloric and sulphuric acid), and seized 10,333 
ampoules of drugs substances and 4,755 ampoules of psychotropic 
substances.  The MVD initiated 30 criminal cases of violation of the 
handling rules for drugs, psychotropic substances, and poisons, and 
75 administrative cases of illegal use of drugs, psychotropic 
substances, and precursor chemicals without the aim of sale. 
53.  (SBU) The MVD reports that, in accordance with present 
legislation, potassium permanganate and acetic anhydride are subject 
to state control and are included in the list of precursors that are 
subject to control.  Acetic anhydride is not produced in Kazakhstan 
and is not imported into its territory.  There has been no 
industrial use of acetic anhydride since 2005. 


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